Projections on Iberian vocabulary, toponyms and derivations in Portuguese, indicate just a few dozen words in total. The apico-alveolar retracted sibilant is a result of bilingualism of speakers of Basque and Vulgar Latin.
The Basque influence in Portuguese is believed to have entered mainly through Spanish, because many of those who took part in the Reconquista and later repopulation campaigns in Portugal, were of Basque lineage, even if bilingual Basque-Castilian or Castilian-only speakers with strong Basque influence. There are a few words, surnames and forenames:. Although there is not a comprehensive study or wordcount on how much Celtic , particularly Gallaecian and words from the Hispano-Celtic group survived in Portuguese and Galician ; it is fair to say that after Latin, this is the second largest component in the Portuguese culture and language.
The Celtic component is often overlooked, due to the strong Latinisation of Celtic-derived words in Portuguese.
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Surnames: A considerable number of the Portuguese surnames spread in all Portuguese-speaking countries and ex-colonies today is Celtic or of Latinised, Celtic-borrowings. This is not a comprehensive list of those. Other words were incorporated to Portuguese during the Middle Ages, mostly proceeding from French and Occitan languages, as both cultures had a massive impact in Portuguese during the 12th and 13th centuries. Some everyday vocabulary, towns and placenames have Frankish-derived etymology, by influence of French in that period.
More recently other words with Germanic origin have been incorporated, either directly from English or other Germanic languages, or indirectly through French. Many of these words are shared with Galician , sometimes with minor spelling or phonetic differences. Projections indicate over Germanic words in Portuguese, with a tendency to increase due to English , German and other modern influences. Some of these words existed in Latin as loanwords from other languages. Some of these words have alternate etymologies and may also appear on a list of Galician words from a different language.
Some words contain non-Germanic elements.
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Latin words of Germanic origin:. Langobardic :. Ancient Roman-derived names are the most numerous in Portugal and Portuguese-speaking countries. With globalisation, a number of new Germanic names and other origins exist in Portuguese:. Between the 8th and mid 13th centuries, Portugal was occupied and under the influence of the Islamic Emirate of Cordoba known as Al-Andalus. During that period, although the local populations continued to speak Western Romance , and further south Mozarabic dialects; Arabic being the elite language, lent many new words to Portuguese, thanks to a rich cultural and scientific legacy left in the Iberian Peninsula  and the Western world in the Middle Ages.
Words such as 'algebra','algorism algorithm ', 'alcohol', 'azimuth', 'sugar', 'coffee' and many others were incorporated into Portuguese and are everyday words:. Many words from the Islamic period were borrowings from Spanish and Mozarabic dialects from the South. Because Portugal expelled the Moors years earlier than Spain, the Arabic influence in Portuguese was relatively small and left no loanwords in the Portuguese lexicon related to human feelings or emotions. Projections estimate to Arabic-derived words in Portuguese, with a tendency to decrease as many of these words have entered in disuse over time:.
With the Portuguese discoveries linguistic contact was made, and the Portuguese language became influenced by other languages with which it came into contact outside Europe. In Brazil , many placenames and local animals have Amerindian names, the same occurring with the local Bantu languages in Angola and Mozambique. The country name "Angola" is from a Bantu word, N'gola.
The country name Macau is from Chinese A-mok , name of the city's temple. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: List of Portuguese words of Germanic origin. This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. February Retrieved Behind the name. Varela Sieiro , pp. Portal das Palabras. Retrieved 17 June Archived from the original on Oslo: Kunnskapsforlaget, , p. I am a good friend! Izabela Lins Language Arts — Ms. It is a place to learn English, have fun and play! It moves like this.
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